Daron Acemoğlu (sur Wikipedia) est un économiste américain d’origine turque et est il me semble un des économistes les plus en vus récemment. Il travaille principalement sur la politique économique, le développement et l’inégalité. Je vous conseille (les 150 premières pages non mathématiques) de son livre Economic Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy (Les origines économiques de la démocratie et de la dictature) sur le rôle des institutions.
Daron Acemoğlu écrit dans The Economist un article Economic power begets political power (le pouvoir économique engendre le pouvoir politique) dans lequel il montre qu’une des causes des inégalités dans le monde et dans différentes sociétés développées est politique.
A case can be made that top inequality has been soaring in part because of politics. Piketty and Saez document that the very rich today are different than those several decades ago, most importantly because they are not rentiers enjoying returns on their or their parents’ capital, but W-2 earners, enjoying very, very high salaries. Recent research by Thomas Philippon and Ariel Resheff shows a concurrent increase in salaries in the financial sector relative to the rest of the economy, confirming the pattern suggested by casual empiricism that many of these very high W-2 earners are in the financial sector. But the expansion of the financial sector and the salaries therein over the last two decades may not have been just an unavoidable consequence of economic tides but a very political process. The deregulation of finance, despite the presence of implicit and explicit government guarantees to financial institutions which would have ordinarily necessitated significant regulation, appears to have been partly won by the financial industry as a result of lobbying, campaign contributions and the access to politicians that the industry enjoys (though this is not to argue that some of this deregulation did not have a compelling economic logic nor that free-market ideology played no role).